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10年前有关我国有害生物防治业发展趋势的探讨,如今可以思考下


来源于: 发表于:2019-11-6

zai2008nian《zhonghuaweishengshachongyaoxie》zazhikandenglezhongguoshuhaiheweishengchonghaifangzhixiehuibangongshimishuzhangyanghualinde《woguoyouhaishengwufangzhiyefazhanqushidetantao》,limiantichuleyouhaishengwufangzhixingyede5gefangmiandefazhanqushi,rujin10nianyijingguoqu,zheixiequshiyoudebianchengxianshi,youdeyouyouxinneirongzengjia,youdeyoudailaixindesikao,hechongchongkexuekafeiguanduizheigexingyedefazhanhezhuangdaguochengzhongchuxiandewentiheqishi,yiqilaisikaoxia。


五大趋势
趋势一:有害生物防治主体从群众运动向专业防治队伍,转变, 逐步实现防治模式的专业化、市场化

qushier:youhaishengwufangzhicelvecongyouhaishengwufangzhixiang”sanweiyiti“ ( youhaishengwufangzhi、xiaodu、baojie) zhuanbian, zhubushixianyouhaishengwufangzhideyitihua、jiyuehua

qushisan:youhaishengwufangzhiduixiangcongchusihaixiangshuhaiyuweishengchonghaifangzhi、baiyifangzhidengxiangjiehezhuanbian, zhubushixianyouhaishengwufangzhidezhengtihua、kexuehua

qushisi:youhaishengwufangzhiduiwucongchuantongpeixunxiangzhiyezigepeixunzhuanbian, zhubushixianzhiyezigepeixundeguifanhua、zhiduhua

qushiwu:youhaishengwufangzhixinxicongputongchuanboxianghulianwangchuanmeizhuanbian, zhubushixianfangzhi、shangwu、xuanchuandexinxihua、gaoxiaohua

 


01有害生物防治的专业化,市场化发展


市场化现状 有害生物防治服务业顺应市场经济发展的需求,由雏形逐渐变成了具有一定规模的服务产业。20世纪80年代初到2000年市场化的有偿服务队伍( 消杀服务站、合资企业、杀虫公司) 初步形成; 2000年至今,以市场化为主的有害生物防治产业形成规模。PCO企业现有1~1.2万家,全国分布不均,如广东有1200多家,而西部地区数量较少。

 

zaibufenshichangquyu,youyugongsiduo,shichangjingzhengjilie,weileguifanyouhaishengwufangzhixingye,zaicujinjiankangchengshijianshefahuijijizuoyong。2018nian8yue31rixiawu,youguangdongshengyouhaishengwufangzhixiehuichangdao,yuguangzhou、shenzhen、dongguan、shaoguan、foshan、zhuhai、zhongshan、jiangmen、zhaoqing、nanhai、shundeyouhaishengwufangzhixiehuigongtongxiangyingde《guangdongshengyouhaishengwufangzhixingyechengxinzilvgongyue》qianzi、fabu,gaigongyuezhizaituidongguangdongshengyouhaishengwufangzhixingyedechengxinjingying、jiankangyouxufazhan,cujinquanshengyouhaishengwufangzhiqiyezijuedizhibuliangjingzheng,youzhiyoujia,heliguifanyongyao,duihuanjingyouhao,genghaodiweijianshejiankangguangdongfuwu。” gaigongyueyebijiangduiqitaquyuyouhaishengwufangzhishichangdefazhantigongyidingqishi。

 

woguoshichanghuayouhaishengwufangzhiyefazhandedazhimailuo:

纯公益化阶段
20世纪90年代以前,国内经济体制属于计划经济,病媒生物预防控制工作完全由政府组织的爱卫办、防疫站和街道下属的除害消毒站承担,政府财政拨款予以资助。其消杀服务对象主要是机关团体单位和公共场所,以及虫媒传染病疫情的控制处理。

公益化向市场化转型阶段
即1990-2002 年期间,加入WTO后,国内经济体制转型,市场经济逐步发展,PCO市场需求增加,PCO企业数量急速增多,民营的有害生物防治企业( PCO) 大量涌现,国外的PCO企业也相继进入,与政府组织的除害消毒站并存,共同承担病媒生物防治工作


市场化阶段
2003年以后,国内经济体制深化改革,政府组织的除害消毒站转制,政府负责的公共场所消杀服务全面推向市场,实行招投标方式购买服务。有害生物防治服务迅速发展壮大,形成了一个新兴的服务市场。由于PCO市场需求扩大速度放缓,PCO企业快速增多后,产生了市场的激烈竞争

shichanghuakehufenbu  guoneishichangkehuleixinghesuozhanbilifenbiewei:minyongzhuzhaixiaoyu3% ,shangye60%~70% ,zhengfuzuzhiheshehuigonggongshiyedeng20%~30%。(meiguoshichangkehuleixinghesuozhanbilifenbiewei: jiaju 46.5% 、shangye 27% 、baiyi26.1%deng)


专业化的困惑 国内有害生物防治服务的理念与模式是以消杀为主。客户与服务商缺少预防意识,通常是在发现害虫时购买卫生用农药或者消杀服务。客户希望立竿见影,服务商为了满足客户要求、实现经济效益大量用药。导致成本提升。(有害生物防治行业发展比较成熟的国家有害生物防治服务的理念与模式是以预防为主,类似保险行业,每年客户支付账单,多数用于例行检查而不是购买卫生用农药; 服务公司注重督促指导改善环境、防止入侵,发现问题及时解决)

 

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思考:有害生物防治行业已经适应市场经济的发展,发展到一定阶段,就要取得一定突破,打破瓶颈,如目前商业客户已经做到很高比例的情况,在很难突破情况下,就需要寻找新的项目增长空间;同时对于如何降低整体的运营成本,就需要考虑专业化的理念问题,对于运营成本比例的调整很重要。

 


02 三位一体化(有害生物防治、消毒、保洁)

fangzhifuwu、xiaodufuwuheweishengbaojiedeyitihua, kejieyuedaliangdeshehuirenli、cailihewuliziyuan。zaiguowaibaxiaodu、shachong、mieshuzonghezaiyiqikaizhan, zongchengchonghaikongzhihuoshachong。congxiaodujishulaikan,  duihuanjing、wutibiaomiandeshajunchengweixiaodu, fuyuxiaoduyimiejun、xiaodu、qingjie、baozang、fangfudengneihan。guowaijiangzheiyixingyetongchengweiyouhaishengwufangzhixingyeheqingjiefuwuxingye, houzhezhuanmenchengbaoyiyuan、binguandengdanweideqingjieweishengxiaodudengrichanggongzuo。xiaoshaxingyebudanzaizheixieguojianeiwei ”chaoyangxingye“, qudelemingxiandexiaoyi, erqiekaishixiangwoguodengdisanshijieshentou。rumeiguomouyidagongsideweishengyongpin、shebei, zhuyaofuwuyubinguandexiaodu、qingxideng, nianxiaoshouchanpindashiduoyiyuan,zheishiyigefazhandequshi。

ersuizheqihoubiannuan,quanqiuchuanranbingdejianxiexingbaofa,weishengyongyaoxiedefazhanqianjingfeichangguangkuo。muqian,quanqiuqianshidafeinongyongnongyaoshichangshizhiwei140yimeiyuan,zhanju58%deshichangfene,qizhongmeiguowei 55 yimeiyuan,zhongguowei17 yimeiyuan,zhongguofeinongyongnongyaoshichangfenekuaisuzengjia,yongyoujudadeshichangkongjian。


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sikao:muqianguoneishichangdeyouhaishengwufangzhicelvexiang”sanweiyiti“ (youhaishengwufangzhi、xiaodu、baojie) zhuanbianguochengzhong,haishicunzaiyidingkunnan,kenenghemuqianshichangdebuchengshuyouguan,ruxiaodudeshichangmuqianhaibuxiangyouhaishengwufangzhishichangneimekaifangheguifan,erruheyubaojiededuijie,gengshizhidesikao,shichanghenda。yidansangefuwukeyouxiaojiehe,zhubushixianyouhaishengwufangzhideyitihua、jiyuehuahou,shichangchanzhikeguan。ruhezaizishenjingyingdejichushang,tishenghekuodajingyingfuwufanweiyezhidesikao。

 

 

03 xiangshuhaiyuweishengchonghaifangzhi、baiyifangzhidengxiangjiehezhuanbian

baiyifangzhi muqianshuleihechonghaifangzhishiqiyede”kanjiabenling“,erbaiyifangzhishichangnanbeibujun,qiyeduiyubaiyifangzhiyerenzhibutong,daozhibutongdeqiyerenyuanjishuliliangcanchabuqi,jishuchubeidi,danbaiyifangzhishishixianzhengtihua、kexuehuazhanlvemubiaobixuyuzhongyaodexuanze,baiyishiyizhongduiwoguoguominjingjizaochengzhongdaweihaidezhuyaohaichong。erjiejianmeiguodengyouhaishengwufangzhihebaiyifangzhidezuofahejingyan, xuyaoconglilunheshijianshangtantaobaiyifangzhiheqitayouhaishengwufangzhidegongzuojingyan, jijicujinyouhaishengwufangzhigelingyudezonghexiediaofazhan。


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sikao:muqianyouhaishengwufangzhishichangjiangbaiyifangzhinaru,xiangbaiyifangzhiqingxiangliliang,chubeijishuliliang,shiyouhaishengwufangzhiyitihuahejiyuehuadequshi,yeshiduiweilaixinzengshichangxiangmudeyigetupokou。

 

04 zhubushixianzhiyezigepeixundeguifanhua、zhiduhua

zhiyezigepeixunshiwoguoyouhaishengwufangzhiyetigaoduiwusuzhidegenbenbaozheng。zaixiehuidezuzhihexiediaoxia,zhiyezigepeixunzhujianguifanhuahezhiduhua。zaipeixundefangshishang,xiehuiyejijitanjiuxindejishu,ruyuanchengshipinhua,tishengyouhaishengwufangzhiyuandefuwunengli,weifangzhiyuanchuangzaotishengdejihui。

2000年中国鼠害与卫生虫害防治协会申请设立有害生物防治员职业标准。2005年人力资源和社会保障部发布职业标准,有害生物防治员列入《中华人民共和国工种分类目录》
2016年有害生物防治员位列技能人员职业资格目录清单2017年国务院最新公布的清理后的职业目录清单,从最初的 700 多个职业仅保留 140 个职业。其中,有害生物防治员的保留,体现了行业的蓬勃发展、政府的高度重视以及建设健康中国的迫切需要。----------

sikao:xingyeyuelaiyueguifan,duiyuguifanhuadeyaoqiuyeyuelaiyuegao。ruhetigaoxinyuangongdexianchangjineng,tishenglaoyuangongdezonghesuzhi,bangzheigexingyeliuzhurencai,shiqiyezuodazuoqiangdeguanjian,erqudeyuangongduiqiyedejiazhiguanderenkejiangshiqiyeguanlizhesikaohenulidemubiao。

 

 

05 congputongchuanboxianghulianwangchuanmeizhuanbian,zhongshikepujiaoyu

youhaishengwufangzhidechuanboheguanlifangshizhengzaixianghulianwangchuanmeizhuanbian,xinxihua,gaoxiaohua,yuelaiyueduodexiangmuzhongshiliyongwangluo,dashujuhezhinengjishu,tigaogongzuoxiaolv。erduiyuxingyedegongyihekepujiaoyudefangshihereqingyezaibuduantigao,xuyaojiyugengduodezhichi。yiguowaiyouhaishengwufangzhixingyedefuwumoshiweiliyechongfenshuomingshehuicanyuhedazhongrentongdezhongyaoxing。

 

woguobenxingyejiyukaizhan“chusihai”yundongdelianghaoqunzhongjichu,zhuanjia、xuezhe、congyerenyuanyingheshehuiminzhongjianliqilinianxiangtong、jiankanggongxiang、zerentongdandemingyungongtongti,renzhenzuohaoyufangweizhu、huanjingyouxiandengzhishipujihejiankangjiaoyu。xiwangxiaozhiqiyehegeren,dazhizhengcedaoxianghemeitixuanchuandoushigongyidejiankangzhishipujiweijiren,congwawazhuaqi,jianghuanjingyishi、yufangyishi、jiankangyishihegongminyishiyitongzuoweijichuyishichuandidaodazhongjiaoyuzhong,tuijinyouhaishengwuweihaiyufangzhi、jiankangfanghudenglinianshenrurenxin。

 

tebieshiyouzhongguoweishengyouhaishengwufangzhixiehuiqiantou、shijieweishengzuzhimeijieshengwujianceyuguanlihezuozhongxin、yadaqushachongguanlixiehuilianmeng、meiguohaichongguanlixiehui、ouzhouhaichongguanlixiehui、nengduojie( rentokil initial) 、aoken( orkin) 、nantonggongchenghuagong( ntgc) lianhefaqi,“shijiehaichongrifabudahui”yu2017 nian 6 yue 6 rizaizhongguobeijingjuxing,baijiazhongwaimeiti、keyandaibiao、guojimingren、xingyelingxiu、zhimingqiyedaibiaodenggong300 rengongtongjianzhengle“shijiehaichongri”dedansheng。weilepeihe“shijiehaichongri”dexuanchuantuiguang,xiangshehuigongzhongxuanchuanhaichongdeweihai,congeryinfagongzhongduizheiyiwentideguanzhuhezhongshi,zengqianggongzhongduichonghaidefangfanyishi,tishengzhengtixingyezaishehuishangxingxiang。

 

gongyishiyeshiqiyegonggongguanxidezhongyaomeijie。qiyejinrurenheyigeshichang,doushejiyudangdidezhengfu、gongzhongjishehuigejiedegonggongguanxi,henduoqiyeshenzhitichule“gonggongguanxishidiyishengchanli”dekouhao。ercanyugongyishiyewuyishichuligonggongguanxidezuijiashouduan,zheiyishibeikuaguoqiyeshijianzhengmingguodeqiyejingyingzhenli。chengshudeqiye,tebieshikuaguoqiye,jibenshangdoubacanyufazhangongyishiyexiejinleqiqiedianjingappxiazaihuofazhanzhanlvezhong。zaigongyihuodongzhong,qiyeyizhujianchengweizairenli、wulishangmomozhichideshenglijun。

 


思考:为了提高工作效率,更多的节约成本,越来越多的项目与智能化,信息化相结合,这也将是一个趋势。而对于公众的科普教育,公益活动等,就需要更多有责任的企业参与,与协会,专业机构一同提升整个社会和大众的参与性。这也许只是刚刚起步,但前景可观!!

 

 

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